ur face represents our health status and emotional well being. Dullness or vibrancy of our face is a direct reflection of whether we are unwell or well. Like, if you are embarrassed or angry, your face becomes red. Similarly, the face of a person experiencing a heart attack may appear ashen. Moisturizers are important cosmeceuticals that have an impact on our facial skin. One of the areas of the body that is most exposed to sunlight is our face. Prolonged exposure to UV radiation makes it susceptible to cutaneous melanoma. So, daily moisturizers with UVA and UVB protection are of significance.
Facial moisturizers enhance the texture of your skin, protect you from harmful radiation of the sun and mitigate dryness of skin by virtue of their constituent humectants, sunscreens, emollients, and occlusives.  Application of a moisturizer that suits your skin is a fundamental aspect of your daily skincare routine. Moisturizers inhibit dry skin condition which is of more importance during dry winter months. Within a short period of application, they can enhance the texture and tone of your skin. In combination with other facial care products, a good moisturizer can be effective in minimizing signs of aging and improve the appearance of your facial skin.  Moisturizers work by not letting the inherent moisture of your face to escape and reducing epidermal evaporation of water. 
- Ingredients to Look for in a Facial Moisturizer
- Types of Moisturizer
- Ingredients to Look for in a Facial Moisturizer
- Factors Affecting Choice of Moisturizer
- Do It Yourself Facial Moisturizer With Essential Oils and Shea Butter
- Alternative Method of Preparing Shea Butter and Essential Oil Face Moisturizer
- Various Essential Oils That Can Be Added to Your Do It Yourself Facial Moisturizer
- Why Shea Butter Is Better Than Other Emollients and Oils?
- Tips for Proper Moisturization of Facial Skin
- Quick Tips for Healthy and Naturally Glowing Skin
Ingredients to Look for in a Facial Moisturizer
1. Non-pore clogging: Irrespective of your skin type look for ingredients that are noncomedogenic or do not block your pores and do not leave your facial skin feeling sticky.
2. Natural oils: Look for natural oils as these serve as effective antioxidants and natural hydrators. Avocado oil has both the properties whereas grapeseed oil is an excellent source of vitamin E and linoleic acid that boosts our skin health. Plant-based oils are usually safe.
3. Sunscreen: If you spend a lot of time outdoors your moisturizer must have sunscreen ingredient. Look for those with SPF of 30.
4. Avoid alcohol-based moisturizer: An alcohol content of more than 3% will further dry-normal skin.
5. Avoid moisturizers with chemical additives: Avoid petroleum derivative based moisturizers as they can block your pores and serve as carcinogens. These include benzene, paraffin wax, mineral oil, petrolatum etc. 
Types of Moisturizer
Broadly moisturizers are categorized into two types:
1. Oil-based Moisturizers
These include the following:
- Face salves: These are made using essential oils, waxes, and herb-infused carrier oils. They provide intense hydration; soothe the epidermis, and help ease mild skin irritations. These are suitable for dry, sensitive, mature and normal skin.
- Face balms: Essential oils, waxes, and carrier oils are used to make these. Suitable for application on entire face for people with dry, normal, sensitive or mature skin. These are good epidermal hydrators and skin protectors.
- Facial oils: These are a combination of essential oils and plain as well as herb-infused carrier oils. They should be used in small quantities for all types of skin. They work by softening, calming and hydrating your face.
2. Water and Oil Based Moisturizers
These include the following:
- Face creams: An oil phase and a water phase are emulsified together. A concentration of oil is higher than water and is suitable for dry, sensitive, normal and mature skin.
- Face lotions: Combination of water and oil, lotions are lighter than cream and the skin can more readily absorb it. Percentage of water is higher than oils. These are more suitable for blemish prone skin as well as for oily, normal and combination skin type. 
Factors Affecting Choice of Moisturizer
1. Skin Type
Dry facial skin: You need oily moisturizers with occlusives.
Normal skin: Preparations with humectants are preferable. The moisturizer with less occlusive should be chosen.
Oily skin: You can avoid moisturizers mostly, and go for it only when your face becomes very dry like during cold weather conditions. If you are having acne, then avoid applying moisturizer.
Combination type skin: Do not apply moisturizer on the T-zone and use a non-oily moisturizer that has the only humectant on rest of the face.
People with sensitive skin need to avoid moisturizers with added preservatives and fragrance as these may sensitize or irritate your skin. You have to be especially cautious when applying moisturizers around your eyes and go for additive free ones.
Consistency and texture of a moisturizer matter while you are selecting one. A product that feels sticky to touch can be avoided.
4. Special or Exotic Ingredients
These include vitamins, gelatins, proteins, allantoin, royal bee jelly etc. which are present in many moisturizers.
Any moisturizer to be used at night does not require a sunscreen. Daytime moisturizers should have an effective sunscreen. 
Do It Yourself Facial Moisturizer With Essential Oils and Shea Butter
An ounce each of shea butter and carrot seed oil
Three ounces of argan oil
Five drops of lemongrass oil
Six drops of chamomile oil
Ten drops of lavender oil
In a heat safe bowl take the shea butter and argan oil and place it in a pan having hot water.
As the butter melts combine both the ingredients.
Now remove the bowl from heat and pour in the carrot seed oil and mix.
Pour in the essential oils and mix well.
It is ready for application on a clean face. Use it day and night.
You need to store in a cool place away from light. 
How it works
- Shea butter: It enhances synthesis of collagen, provides nourishment, lowers inflammation and hydrates the epidermis.
- Carrot seed oil: It is rich in antioxidants. Carotenoids present in it heal the skin.
- Argan oil: It works on epidermal inflammation and provides the skin with vitamins E and A and other antioxidants.
- Lavender essential oil: It has epidermal healing properties; can minimize acne; soothes your facial skin; and helps in complexion restoration.
- Lemongrass oil: It tones and brightens your face; has astringent and antiseptic properties; mitigates acne and adds a glow to your skin.
- Chamomile essential oil: It has bactericidal and anti inflammatory properties.
Alternative Method of Preparing Shea Butter and Essential Oil Face Moisturizer
Half a cup of shea butter
Ten to fifteen drops of two or three different kinds of essential oils
Two tablespoons of avocado, apricot seed, sweet almond or jojoba oil
In a double boiler melt the shea butter on medium heat. For even melting stir it at times.
Now add two tablespoons of either one or two types of carrier oils, and whisk the mixture.
Refrigerate this mix for at least ten minutes. As it becomes translucent and just starts to harden 10 to 15 minutes later, take it out.
Now add ten to fifteen drops of a combination of essential oils. You can add essential oils like clary sage, myrrh, lavender, frankincense, rosemary and carrot seed oil. You can work out various proportions to make ten or fifteen drops. You may combine three drops each of clary sage oil and carrot seed oil with five drops of lavender essential oil.
Use an electric mixer to blend all the ingredients for a minute. It should become creamy and thick.
Use a rubber spatula to transfer the prepared moisturizer to a glass jar.
Store it in a dry, cool place away from sunlight. It stays for six months to a year. 
Various Essential Oils That Can Be Added to Your Do It Yourself Facial Moisturizer
Geranium essential oil: It is good for our face as it may keep fine lines and wrinkles at bay and balance the pH of your skin.
Rose essential oil: It can soften and soothe your facial skin. It suits all types of skin and is beneficial for caring for mature skin.
Roman chamomile essential oil: It soothes your redness and itching of the skin.
Helichrysum essential oil: Suitable for mature acne prone skin, Helichrysum essential oil has bactericidal and fungicidal properties. It can restore your epidermis and work on scars on your face.
Neroli essential oil: It is good for our facial skin as it helps in balancing its moisture level.
Yarrow essential oil: By virtue of its inherent astringent properties, yarrow essential oil is more suitable for combination or oily skin type. It can help soothe epidermal inflammation.
Niaouli essential oil: It can help you fight acne by virtue of its bactericidal properties. 
Why Shea Butter Is Better Than Other Emollients and Oils?
- Higher healing fraction: Seed oils have a saponifiable fraction or moisturizing fraction and nonsaponifiable or healing fraction. Shea butter, unlike other seed oils, has a larger proportion of healing fraction. Presence of various vitamins, phytonutrients etc. in the healing fraction makes shea butter therapeutic. The healing fraction ranges from five to seventeen percent. It depends on the source. Other seed oils have a healing fraction of one percent or less. So, regular use of shea butter can help you fight many skin issues like wrinkles, eczema, minor cuts, blemishes, insect bite, allergies etc.
- Superior moisturizer: As compared to other nut butter and oils, shea butter’s moisturizers closely resemble those produced by our sebaceous glands. So, it is considered a superior topical protector and moisturizer. It boosts microcirculation of blood in our skin. It also has a positive physiological and biochemical impact on skin wounds. 
Tips for Proper Moisturization of Facial Skin
1. Warm Water Soaks
Use warm water to wet your entire face. Avoid water that is too hot as it can dehydrate your face or damage the epidermis.
2. Application of Cleanser
Using your fingertips mildly massage a small amount of facial cleanser in circular motion avoiding the mouth and eye region. Massage for half a minute and then wash off with warm water.
3. Drying the Face
Use a soft and clean towel to mildly pat dry your face. Do not rub your skin or else you will end up harming the skin. Also, abstain from using any dirty towel as by doing so you will end transferring bacteria to your face.
4. Toning of Facial Skin
Take some toner in a cotton pad and pat it on your face. If your nose, chin, and forehead become oily frequently then pay special attention to these areas while applying toner. Avoid the eye and the mouth region. Toning is important as it helps get rid of remnants on your skin like minerals and chlorine from tap water. It also helps in moisture retention.
5. Application of the Moisturizer
Take a small amount on your fingertip and massage it gently on your face. Be careful while applying it on the eye region. 
Quick Tips for Healthy and Naturally Glowing Skin
- Avoid hot water: A short duration shower with warm water is healthier for your skin than a hot bath or hot shower. 
- Your soaps should be mild: Alcohol-based soaps are not good for your skin as they remove the natural oil of your epidermis. Mild and non-scented products with natural ingredients like aloe vera, vitamins etc. should be used.
- Do not rub your skin: After washing your face, just pat it dry. It will help in retention of the natural moisture.
- Use sunscreens: Depending on the time you have to spend outside, apply a low or high SPF sunscreen.
- Use a humidifier: It can add moisture to the air in your room and inhibit unnecessary dryness of skin.
- Stay well hydrated: Drink at least eight glasses of water a day. This will naturally enhance the moisture content of your skin.
- Use lip balm: Regular use of lip balm is must reduce chapping of lips due to dryness. Lip balm with SPF 30 is advised to protect your lips from aging.
- Healthy diet: Your diet should be rich in fruits and vegetables and healthy proteins. Include vitamin C rich foods like citrus foods, spinach etc.; omega 3 fatty acids rich walnuts and fish; fiber-rich foods like nuts, fresh vegetables, and fruits etc. Cut down on the amount of sugary and salty food you are consuming. You can consume multivitamins if you think your regular diet is not meeting your vitamin and mineral needs. 
- Regular exercising: Cardio exercises are good for your skin as they activate the flow of blood and thereby enhance skin glow and health.
- Follow a facial care routine: This includes removing your makeup before going to sleep; washing your face at night; using a toner especially on acne prone region of the face; moisturizing the entire face; exfoliating once in seven days to remove dead cells and exfoliating two to three times in a week if you are prone to acne breakouts.